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Which types of spray nozzles are available & how to use them?

Written by Frank Schoenmakers | Last update: 03-10-2019

Spray nozzles are attachments for spraying equipment used to atomise crop protection products. A nozzle converts a jet of liquid into droplets so that a crop protection product can be evenly distributed over a crop. It is important to choose the right nozzle and to use it in the right way, because this way you will achieve the best possible result.

In this article our specialists give answers on the following questions:

Which spray nozzle types are available?

There are different types of spray nozzles available for different use. It’s important to choose the right spray nozzle to get the best result because spray nozzles determine the volume, drop size and spray pattern. In this topic we will discuss different kinds of spray nozzles: Split top nozzle, Swirl nozzle and Floodjet nozzle.

Split top nozzles

Split top spray nozzles provide a ellipse way of spraying and is used with low pressure spraying. These nozzles are suitable for almost every application. There are different types of Split top nozzles:
  • Basic Split top spray nozzle: this is the most common version. This spray nozzle is a relatively small drop en provides a uniform distribution of the spraying agent.
  • Venturi spray nozzle: this spray nozzle provides bigger nozzles and they are filled with air. When the drops touch the crop they splash into smaller drops. This creates a better coverage on the crop.

spray nozzle: split top nozzle

Swirl nozzles

Swirl spray nozzles give cone way of spraying and are used with high pressure spraying. These Conejet nozzles produce fine drops, but because of the way of spraying they are less suitable to attach on a spray boom. There are different kinds of high flow spray nozzels:
  • Swirl spray nozzle with hollow cone: this spray nozzle provides smal drops in a circle on the edge of the cone pattern.
  • Swirl spray nozzle with full cone: this spray nozzle produces big nozzles in a circle.
spray nozzle: swirl nozzlespray nozzles

Floodjet nozzles

Floodjet spray nozzles give an ellipse way of spraying and are used with low pressure spraying. They have a wide angle of 160° and are suitable for big spraying volumes. For example used by Herbicides. The mist of the Floodjet spray nozzles contain both big and small drops. 
spray nozzle: floodjet nozzle

Recommendations for different spray nozzles

You can use different spraying equipment for spraying. It’s important that you use the correct spray nozzles. We recommend the following:
  • Backpack sprayer & spray lance
    o For high pressure spraying: hollow or full Swirl spray nozzle
    o For low pressure spraying: Floodjet spray nozzle
  • Horizontal & vertical spray boom: Split top spray nozzle


Spray nozzles and nozzle equipment

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What should you pay attention to when choosing a spray nozzle?

Spay nozzles are accessories for spraying equipment used to spray crop protection products. A nozzle converts a jet of liquid into droplets so that a crop protection product can be evenly distributed over a crop. It is important that you use the right nozzle, as this will affect the effect of the spray liquid. 
When choosing a nozzle, you need to answer the following questions:
  • How much liquid do I want to spray per hectare? (dispense)
  • Which spraying pressure do I want to use? 
  • Which top corner do I need?
  • What type of nozzle do I want to use?

Dispensing of a nozzle

The label of a crop protection product indicates which solution you are work with and in which quantity the solution should be dosed in the crop.

Nozzle pressure

The spray pressure depends on the desired droplet size. A high spray pressure results in a fine drop, while a low spray pressure results in coarse droplets. The choice of a certain droplet size depends on the type of crop protection product you want to spray. 
  • Insecticides: a coarse droplet can be used here. Insects move in the crop, so that they automatically contact the crop protection product. 
  • Contact fungicides: these can be sprayed with a fine droplet as well as with a coarse droplet, provided that the distribution on the leaf is good. The active substance shall be redistributed in the event of deworming. 
  • Systemic fungicides: the aim is to enter as many of the active substance as possible to the juice stream. Coarse droplets are therefore better suited, because they dry less quickly. 
  • Herbicides: fine droplets remain better on the crop. This makes spraying with a fine drop more suitable when using contact herbicides. 
  • Soil herbicides: these can be sprayed with either a fine or a coarse droplet.

Top corner

The top corner is the angle at which the spray fluid comes out of the nozzle. The top angle is especially important when using a boom. By using a nozzle with the right top angle, you ensure that each location under a boom receives spray fluid from two nozzles mounted next to each other. The spray height also influences this. Tee jet nozzles are available with a top angle of 80° and 110°. The table below shows the height at which a nozzle with a certain top angle must be installed to achieve a 100% overlap. 

Top corner

Spray height  

80° (vertical spray boom)

75 cm

110° (horizontal spray boom)

50 cm

Spray height top corner

What does the coding of a nozzle mean?

Nozzle coding is the information displayed on a nozzle. It includes the characteristics of the nozzle in the form of numbers and letters, namely the nozzle type, the vertex angle, the release value, the brand, the material and the colour coding. Our expert will gladly explain the nozzle coding to you.

Nozzle coding

Types of spray nozzles

There are various spray nozzle types available, each with different characteristics. The type of cap is indicated on the nozzle with letters.
Flat spray nozzlesSwirl nozzlesImpact nozzles
... = standard
XR = large pressure range
DG = anti drift
AI = air injection (venturi)
UB = side nozzle
OC = eccentric nozzle
FL = full conical nozzle
TXA = hollow conical nozzle
TXB = hollow conical nozzle
TF = precision impact nozzle


There are various brands of nozzles available. Royal Brinkman supplies the range of Teejet Spray nozzles manufactured by TeeJet Spraying Systems.

Vertex angle

The vertex angle is the angle at which the spraying fluid leaves the nozzle. The vertex angle is particularly important when using a spray boom.

Colour code

The colour code indicates the quantity of fluid ejected per minute at a pressure of 2 bar.

ISO colour code Pressure filter (mesh) Litres per minute at 2 bar Litres per hectare at 6 km/h and at 2 bar 
01 (orange)1000.3365
015 (green)1000.4998
02 (yellow)500.65131 
025 (purple)500.98164
03 (blue)500.98196
04 (red)501.31261
05 (brown)501.63327
06 (grey)501.96392 
08 (white)502.61523 

Types of nozzles


Nozzles are available in three types of material. The material from which the nozzle is made is indicated by a letter depicted on it.
  • K: ceramics. This material is very hardwearing.
  • P: plastic. Although cheaper, this material is also less hardwearing than ceramics.
  • S: stainless steel. This material is extremely hardwearing and less sensitive to damage than ceramics.


The number used to indicate the release of spraying fluid is indicated in gallons per minute at a pressure of 3 bars. 

Teejet spray nozzle chart: How do you read it?

A spraying systems nozzle chart, also known as a teejet nozzle chart, helps you with selecting the right nozzle. In the teejet spray nozzle chart you can find different speeds, pressures, and liquid amounts sprayed per hectare with each nozzle. This way the nozzle chart helps you to find the right teejet nozzles for the job. 

Choosing your nozzle with the teejet spray nozzle chart

When you have determined the amount of liquid per hectare you want to spray and with which speed, you can read in the chart which teejet nozzle is best suitable. For example if you would like to spray 415 liters per hectare and your spray boom goes 40 meters per minute. You look in the chart beneath 40 meters per minute for the amount of liters that comes closesd to 415 liters. In the teejet nozzle chart you can see that this is 412 liters per hectare. According to the chart, you can get this result with the orange nozzle 110-01 using 13 bar. 

teejet nozzle chart

Spray nozzle confirmed

When you know which teejet nozzle to use, you need to adjust the speed of your spray boom and the pressure to the nozzle. This way you will spray the right amount of liquid per hectare. For example if you only are able to use the 110-01 nozzle and you need to spray 360 liters per hectare, you will need to adjust de speed to 50 meters per minute and the pressure to 16 bar.

Doppentabel voor het kiezen van de juiste spuitdop

How to reduce wear on nozzles?

Nozzles have a limited life span because of wear and tear during spraying. This wear is caused by friction during spraying. The wear affects the fluid distribution and the spray pattern, so that the nozzle ultimately needs to be replaced. There are a few ways to reduce this wear and tear. We give tips on how to reduce wear on nozzles. 

The right material

Nozzles are available in a variety of materials: ceramic, plastic and stainless steel. Plastic nozzles are cheap, but also wear out relatively quickly. Ceramics are more expensive but suffer less wear and tear during use. Take this into account when choosing a nozzle. The choice of material also depends on the crop protection product to be used. For example, a powdered product increases friction, which makes it advisable to use a nozzle made of a wear-resistant material. 

Using clean water

Contaminated water will cause additional wear and tear. Water containing fine particles such as sand causes extra friction and therefore extra wear. Always use (as) clean water (as possible) for spraying. 

Combination of nozzles and filters

The filter in a sprayer filters out any dirt from the spray water, so that the nozzle does not clog up quickly. By using the right filter, the spray water is optimally filtered. A filter with a large mesh size stops large particles, while a filter with a small mesh size also stops fine particles. A specific filter is suitable for each nozzle. Our specialists can advise you on this. 

Cleaning nozzles

Regularly cleaning a nozzle removes accumulated dirt so it does not cause additional friction in the nozzle. The nozzle should be cleaned internally as well as externally. 

How to clean and check spray nozzles?

Cleaning and checking of nozzles is important for the optimum operation of a nozzle. A contaminated or damaged nozzle can cost you a lot of money, because it can lead to a waste of crop protection products. It is therefore advisable to check your nozzles every season. This ensures an even spray pattern and an even distribution of liquid within the crop. We give you a few tips for cleaning and checking your nozzles.

Cleaning spray nozzles

Dirt or residue can accumulate in a nozzle. This will clog the nozzle. You can remove this dirt with a soft brush or with compressed air. Never use a hard brush or any other hard object (such as a needle). Special care is required with a plastic nozzle, as this nozzle is more susceptible to damage than a nozzle made of stainless steel. For cleaning of nozzles, you can also use a cleaning agent or soda. Immerse the nozzle in this and then rinse it thoroughly with water to ensure proper removal.

Check spray nozzles for wear

Nozzles wear out during operation due to friction. This affects fluid distribution and the spray pattern. Therefore, check nozzles for wear. A nozzle should be replaced when the flow rate of the used nozzle is more than 15% higher than the flow rate of the (exact same) new nozzle. This can be measured by collecting the liquid sprayed with the old nozzle and the liquid sprayed with the new nozzle in a measuring cup and determining the difference.

Questions about the using the right spray nozzles?

If you have any questions about the different spray nozzle types or you would like more information about the spray nozzles please contact our product specialist Michael Visser. Or you can use the question form underneath.

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When you ask your question by using our contact form, we will contact you as soon as possible. On working days within 24 hours.

Frank SchoenmakersAbout Frank Schoenmakers

With over 30 years of experience, having been a mechanisation product specialist, Frank Schoenmakers has gained significant experience within the horticulture sector. Over the past years he has specialised in spraying techniques. How he feels About that himself? "The great thing about my job is that I can use my knowledge to help growers to improve their cultivation. The reciprocal appreciation is quite valuable."

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